Remove the “shameful part” of the female anatomy

In 2016, the couple asked hundreds of medical students and anatomists if they were concerned that the word ‘pudendal’ stemmed from ‘being ashamed’. Most did not. An anatomist added that “it’s interesting where it came from, but it’s now established terminology.”

This jaded attitude dismayed Dr Moxham. It wasn’t just the sexism inherent in the term, he said: “There’s an element of that, there’s no question about it. But it’s also, I think, both scientifically and biologically inappropriate. Generally, anatomical terms are meant to be informative and descriptive. “Pudendum” was neither. “It’s the only term that has a moral context,” he said.

There are other terms that reflect archaic notions about women. The word hymen, which persists in almost all medical textbooks, shares the same root as Hymen, the Greek god of marriage. Nymphae, a slightly older term for labia minora, comes from the Latin word for bride or beautiful maiden. Even the word vagina, which translates to sheath, sheath, or closed envelope, suggests that the primary function of this organ is to house a penis, which is neither precise nor scientifically neutral.

Dr Moxham knew that even established terms could be changed, and believed they should be, as part of efforts to eliminate racial and gender bias in medicine. He had just quit his post as president of the International Federation of Anatomist Associations, which was working on the publication of the latest edition of “Terminologia Anatomica”.

In 2016, Dr Moxham proposed that the Federation’s Terminology Group – which was, at the time, entirely male and predominantly European – remove “pudendum” and related words from its upcoming dictionary. He couldn’t tackle all of the sexism in anatomy, but removing that awkward word seemed like an easy task. “I didn’t see any problem at all,” he said. “I just couldn’t have imagined.”

The terminology group describes its mission as managing an “agile and adaptive vocabulary to remain relevant in a rapidly evolving world of medicine, biomedicine and the health-related professions”. But in practice, progress is slow. The guiding rule “is to be careful when considering changes in terminology and logic in implementing the changes,” said Thomas Gest, anatomist at the University of Houston and former chairman of the terminology group, in an email.

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